Jianmin’s paper on canonical reelin receptors and retinogeniculate targeting is accepted into Neural Development

BACKGROUND:cover image
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the output neurons of the retina, project to over 20 distinct brain nuclei, including the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a thalamic region comprised of three functionally distinct subnuclei: the ventral LGN (vLGN), the dorsal LGN (dLGN) and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL). We previously identified reelin, an extracellular glycoprotein, as a critical factor that directs class-specific targeting of these subnuclei. Reelin is known to bind to two receptors: very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (LRP8), also known as apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2). Here we examined the roles of these canonical reelin receptors in retinogeniculate targeting.
RESULTS:
To assess the roles of VLDLR and LRP8 in retinogeniculate targeting, we used intraocular injections of fluorescently conjugated cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) to label all RGC axons in vivo. Retinogeniculate projections in mutant mice lacking either VLDLR or LRP8 appeared similar to controls; however, deletion of both receptors resulted in dramatic defects in the pattern of retinal innervation in LGN. Surprisingly, defects in vldlr-/-;lrp8-/- double mutant mice were remarkably different than those observed in mice lacking reelin. First, we failed to observe retinal axons exiting the medial border of the vLGN and IGL to invade distant regions of non-retino-recipient thalamus. Second, an ectopic region of binocular innervation emerged in the dorsomedial pole of vldlr-/-;lrp8-/- mutant dLGN. Analysis of retinal projection development, retinal terminal sizes and LGN cytoarchitecture in vldlr-/-;lrp8-/- mutants, all suggest that a subset of retinal axons destined for the IGL are misrouted to the dorsomedial pole of dLGN in the absence of VLDLR and LRP8. Such mistargeting is likely the result of abnormal migration of IGL neurons into the dorsomedial pole of dLGN in vldlr-/-;lrp8-/- mutants.
CONCLUSIONS:
In contrast to our expectations, the development of both the LGN and retinogeniculate projections appeared dramatically different in mutants lacking either reelin or both canonical reelin receptors. These results suggest that there are reelin-independent functions of VLDLR and LRP8 in LGN development, and VLDLR- and LRP8-independent functions of reelin in class-specific axonal targeting.

 

 

 

Collaboration with Bill Guido and Tania Seabrook published in The Journal of Neuroscience

Neurons in layer VI of visual cortex represent one of the largest sources of nonretinal input to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and play a major role in modulating the gain of thalamic signal transmission. However, little is known about how and when these descending projections arrive and make functional connections with dLGN cells. Here we used a transgenic mouse to visualize corticogeniculate projections to examine the timing of cortical innervation in dLGN. Corticogeniculate innervation occurred at postnatal ages and was delayed compared with the arrival of retinal afferents. Cortical fibers began to enter dLGN at postnatal day 3 (P3) to P4, a time when retinogeniculate innervation is complete. However, cortical projections did not fully innervate dLGN until eye opening (P12), well after the time when retinal inputs from the two eyes segregate to form nonoverlapping eye-specific domains. In vitro thalamic slice recordings revealed that newly arriving cortical axons form functional connections with dLGN cells. However, adult-like responses that exhibited paired pulse facilitation did not fully emerge until 2 weeks of age. Finally, surgical or genetic elimination of retinal input greatly accelerated the rate of corticogeniculate innervation, with axons invading between P2 and P3 and fully innervating dLGN by P8 to P10. However, recordings in genetically deafferented mice showed that corticogeniculate synapses continued to mature at the same rate as controls. These studies suggest that retinal and cortical innervation of dLGN is highly coordinated and that input from retina plays an important role in regulating the rate of corticogeniculate innervation.

cg paper

Top panels: Schematic depiction of the timing of retinal and cortical innervation to the dLGN. Retinal axons are shown in red; cortical axons are shown in green. Synapses are illustrated by red or green dots. Bottom panels: Schematic depiction of the accelerated entry of cortical axons into the dLGN in the absence of retinal inputs.